A University of Chicago-based research team has overcome challenges that have limited gene therapy and demonstrated how their novel approach with skin transplantation could enable a wide range of gene-based therapies to treat many human diseases.
In a study in the journal Cell Stem Cell, the researchers provide “proof-of-concept.” They describe gene-therapy administered through skin transplants to treat two related and extremely common human ailments: Type 2 diabetes and obesity.
“We resolved some technical hurdles and designed a mouse-to-mouse skin transplantation model in animals with intact immune systems,” said study author Xiaoyang Wu, assistant professor in the Ben May Department for Cancer Research at the University of Chicago. “We think this platform has the potential to lead to safe and durable gene therapy in mice and, we hope, in humans, using selected and modified cells from skin.”
Beginning in the 1970s, physicians learned how to harvest skin stem cells from a patient with extensive burn wounds, grow them in the laboratory, then apply the lab-grown tissue to close and protect a patient’s wounds. This approach is now standard. However, the application of skin transplants is better developed in humans than in mice.
“The mouse system is less mature,” Wu said. “It took us a few years to optimize our 3-D skin organoid culture system.”
This study is the first to show that an engineered skin graft can survive long term in wild-type mice with intact immune systems. “We have a better than 80 percent success rate with skin transplantation,” Wu said. “This is exciting for us.”
Boosting insulin levels to reduce weight
The researchers focused on diabetes because it is a common non-skin disease that can be treated by the strategic delivery of specific proteins.
They inserted the gene for glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP1), a hormone that stimulates the pancreas to secrete insulin. This extra insulin removes excessive glucose…